ESL Teaching and Learning Background in the United States of America

  • Ekaterine Pipia


This article identifies dramatic demographic changes in the United States with particular emphasis on shifts in the ethnic composition of school-age children. At this writing, nearly one of every five American students entering school is a native speaker of a language other than English. In addition the paper explores ESL background of the United Stats and many facets of the most commonly implemented bilingual program designs in today's American schools: pull-out, structured immersion, transitional, maintenance, and dual language. Since these policies and programs are not related to any socio cultural matters, the paper provides a socio cultural and historical background of language contact and attitudes out of which these programs grew and that each, of course, reflects.

Author Biography

Ekaterine Pipia

School of Languages

Coordinator of the English Language Program

How to Cite
PIPIA, Ekaterine. ESL Teaching and Learning Background in the United States of America. IBSU Scientific Journal, [S.l.], v. 2, n. 2, p. 103-112, dec. 2008. ISSN 2233-3002. Available at: <>. Date accessed: 13 aug. 2020.
Linguistics and Literature


ethnic groups; second language; bilingual education programs